CNC / Tile
Class: Technology, Grasshopper
Software: Rhinoceros/Grashooper/ArtCAM/Match3The first thing we need is to prepare a 3d object for the STL. Then when you created a surface relief, ArtCAM is used to create the appropriate processing paths for processing it. This process has several steps and many different factors, including not only the surface, but also the fact that the cutting tool or tools you use, how many passes the machining and what it goes through – roughing to pull out the mass for the material or finish, to smooth and clean the surface. ArtCAM retains all this quite straightforwardly, although more or less stepwise, using a top-down approach to make these decisions. Once you load and display the image in the 3D window, like what you see above, you need to switch modes in ArtCAM to the “Toolbars” section of the software. At the bottom of the control panel (on the left side of the screen), find the Toolbars tab and click on it. This will open a complete set of tools for creating and publishing tools (left). For this handout, I’m going to keep things simple and work only with the main work of the 3D surface of the machine. There are other options for creating 2D trajectories, as well as 3D roughing and processing specific geometries, and you can and should experiment with them at your discretion. To start the 3D surface of the machine, select the tool from the 3D Trajectory section of the panel. Each of the path options along the path to processing is described below. Area for the machine. This allows you to select a machine for the entire terrain model (whole model) as one processing process or select only one vector path or object (selected vector) to act as an independent operation. By default, the whole model is used, so we leave it that way. However, there are times when you can only want to process a small and single object of the entire model or define such an object differently than others, within the entire terrain. Strategy: this option gives a choice: Raster in X – The cutting tool runs across the machined surface in parallel passes in the X direction (left-right). This is the “default” mode. The raster in X and Y is the same as X, the cutting tool passes in the directions of the parallel pass X and Y. Spiral. Starting from a point, go outside in a continuous spiral, when the condition of the surface is monitored. This parameter does not contain any remaining corners. The spiral in the box is the same as the spiral, but includes the other corners. Bitmap angle: Turn the parallel passages of the cutting tool at an angle from the X axis Allowance: this will leave behind a certain depth of material that will not be cut off, which substantially compensates the entire surface by a given distance. Then, the remaining material must be cut in another machining operation, usually with the help of another or a smaller tool. This is one of the methods for cutting as compared to finishing. Tolerance: how closely step by step the cutting tool corresponds to the real geometry curve. A smaller value will give a more accurate form, but much more code and a much longer time. Machine Safe Z: This is the height above the surface of the warehouse, on which it is safe to move the tool. This value should be high enough to clean any clamps or other holding / locking devices that hold the material in place on the bed. Tool: Select the cutting tool that you will use. It is a tool by which toolpaths based on the tool will be created, including the depth of tool cutting, width, transplant, indent, etc. D. For more information, see the Tool definition section below. This is perhaps the most important choice that you make in the process of generating a trajectory. Multiple passes Z: If your surface requires a cut that will be deeper than the length of the groove of the cutting tool that you will use, you must do several Z-passes. Several Z-passes run the tool through the material, cutting one layer at a time, until you reach the lowest depth of your surface. If you do not make several passes, you will end up trying to cut with a smooth shank (shaft) of the cutting bit, rather than cutting grooves. The shank can not be cut, so that it will lay out the stock directly from the table or clog the cutting head, which can damage the machine. Z-heights of the first and last passes set the initial depth (relative to the set 0,0,0 points) and the final depth of the passes. The number of passes between them is calculated based on the setting of the StepDown tool – the distance to which the tool will drop down for each new pass. This is set in the tool definition window. Travel Ramps: Some cutting tools are called “Center-cutting”, and others are called “Noncenter-Cutting”. The centering tools are capable of cutting with the help of their tip, like a drill, and therefore can be drilled or “immersed” in the material. Off-center cutting tools are not created to cut their tips, just their sides. When using these types of tools, if you want to go down into the material, you must use the Ramping Moves movement – a zigzag to get the tool into the material. This is only necessary when using non-central cutting tools. Material: Click this setting button to determine the material that will be used to cut out the surface relief. The relief itself does not contain this information, so it must be defined here The thickness of the material and the place of origin are important here. As a rule, you need to place the origin in the upper part of the material block and use the upper offset. Name. Give the name of the processing to the process by which you can identify it later. The name can be anything you like, but must refer to the process of thinking, since you can then create a few different on the same surface topography. Calculate: how only everything will be determined, select the calculation of the Now or Later paths. Calculating paths lead to the creation of graphics and data tool paths in accordance with the parameters that you have just defined. Definitions of the instrument: each tool must have a unique definition that defines how this tool is used. ArtCAM catalogs the Metric and Inch toolset, as well as all the information needed to manage the use of the tool Name of the instrument: descriptive name for identification (End Mill 1/4 Inch) A type: (Slot Drill), etc. – this determines the style and profile (visible to the right of the type). Slot Drill is a flat tool. The ball nose is rounded on the tip, and so on. Stepover: The distance that the tool will move horizontally, making the next pass. This value should be a certain percentage or percentage of the total diameter of the instrument and is usually in the range of 25-40%. Too much step by step will cause difficulties in processing, because the tool will have too much pressure, because it tries to cut too much surface area. Stepdown: the distance that the tool will move vertically when performing the next Z-pass (see Multiple Z-passes above). This distance should be within the total cutting length of the tool itself. Cutting out the grooves will not work, because the shaft can not cut. As a rule, the indents have a length of 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the groove maximum and can be significantly smaller depending on the material to be cut. The more concession, the slower the feed speed, which you will need to use, because the tool cuts more. A small stepped mode can use a faster feed to move through the material during cutting. Spindle speed: Speed of rotation of the cutting tool, determined in revolutions per minute (rpm). So quickly the milling tool rotates when it cuts. A faster rotation speed of the spindle will create a smoother cut and may, as a rule, receive a higher feed rate, but will create greater heat from friction in some materials (aluminum, brass, etc.). A slower spindle speed will be more rigid and will not be able to correctly eject chips. The spindle speed too slow relative to the feed speed can even hinder the tool in the material. Feed speed: this is the transverse speed of the cutting head when it passes the material during the cutting operations. The feed should be carefully considered for each material and with respect to other factors, such as the spindle speed, step by step, tool diameter, the number of grooves on the cutting tool, etc. This will require some experiments, but do not try to get the machine to go too fast . This can damage not only your part, but also the machine. Feedings are usually determined in inches per minute or feet per minute. Speed of immersion: like the feed rate, is the speed at which the cutting head moves, but in this case only when immersed or drilled into the material. This speed is often set differently than the feed rate, because this type of cutting creates more friction and is more difficult to cut because of the simultaneous use of only 360 degrees of the tool. This usually ranges from 1/2 to 3/4 of the feed rate. Result: the result is a series of paths that cross the surface of the material, step by step and a gradual cut-off for clipping the material. Toolbars are displayed graphically on the screen in red and will be written out in the code during posting. Wiring: In order for the Filling or Routing machine to actually cut these tool paths out of the material physically, the tool path processing instructions must be sent to the machine as an encoded set of machine instructions called G & M codes. Each machine on the market will differ slightly from the G & M code (some do not even use G & M at all and use other coding structures). To get them, we need to use the tool “Save tools”: The “Save Paths” dialog box opens, in which you select one of your processes with process names, and then the format of the Machine Output file. For all our work, the output file format of the machine will be Denford_Inch (* .fnc). This is the standard G & M GE Fanuc code file, designed to work with our Denilling Filling and Routing machines. Then this file can be downloaded to Denver VR Milling Software, which will be launched on the appropriate production machine.