Archive for 16.07.2019

With a population of over 12.6 million people, Moscow is considered the second densely populated city in Europe (after Istanbul). Living in a city like this becomes a real struggle both for its inhabitants and city planners. One of the most crucial aspects, which makes a city comfortable for living, is its transportation system. Even though Moscow metro is one of the longest in the world and has a daily ridership of around 7 million people, its capacity is still insufficient for the Russian capital. However, there is a new mean of public transport which develops really dynamically – bike-sharing.

Bike-sharing was introduced to the streets of Moscow in 2015. It is a special service provided by Velobike and Moscow Transport Department which allows the users to take a bicycle from one dock-station and return at another for a fee. Docks are special bike racks that lock the bike, and only release it by computer control. The user enters payment information, and the computer unlocks a bike. The user returns the bike by placing it in the dock, which locks it in place.

Since 2013 Velobike showed outstanding statistics: the number of bikes rose from 500 to 4300, the number of stations increased from 79 to 430, and the number of rides per a season – from 70,000 to 4.25 mln.

However, bikes still remain comparatively unpopular. For instance, car sharing in 2018 was used over 6 million times in 6 months of 2018. Even though bikes are cheaper, more environmentally friendly, and do not have traffic jams in Moscow, people tend to use cars more often.

Moreover, cycling infrastructure still leaves much to be desired. The improvement of customer experience by expanding the bike lane coverage would encourage locals and visitors to use the bike-sharing services more extensively.

Therefore, the analysis of Moscow bike-sharing could help to estimate the current trends in cycling in Moscow and develop the strategy for improving this service in the Russian capital.

Class: Technology & City Project.

Material: Plywood, acryl, Arduino, RFID scanner, motors.

Aim: Create the prototype for the automatic waste separation tube.

DataTube is an improvement of the existing waste tube in Russian houses with an aim to make recycling easier to local people, to encourage recycling behaviour, collect data about waste production for the researchers and introduce recycling programs for buildings depending on their waste production. The project was inspired by existing social and digital studies. For example, a study by Sterner (1998) showed that if recycling takes more time, people less willing to recycle and tend to produce more waste. Another work which was an inspiration is TrashTrack where tracking technologies were used to understand the movement of waste after its disposal. For DataTube project waste play a role as an indicator and social profile of the person who throws it away. From waste activities, different personal information can be understood: social statuses, gender, age, hobbies and etc.

DataTube prototype is based on Arduino Leonardo with RFID scanner (code reader), servo motors and IR sensors. The mechanism is consisting of “trash stoppers” (Separator 1) controlled by servo motors and then Separator 2 which are also controlled by servo motors. By default, Separator 1 is always in a closed position to prevent garbage to fell directly to the bins without separation. If the code reader will be not able to recognise RFID then waste will go to the general waste bin. In the future trash bins can be equipped with sensors which identify fullness of the bin and automatically send a request to the Management Company to take appropriate actions . Also, the number of recycling bins will be more then three.

The first real prototype of DataTube.
The schematic representation of the DataTube and first real prototype.

The Arduino code for the separators and motors can be found via the QR code below. Or via the link

DataTube is an example of what the future waste tube can be to provide convenient waste separation to the Russian householders. Their easier solution exists, for example recycling containers, but our goal was to change architecture with minimum impact on human behaviour. The major limitation of the project as there no studies available about people’s behaviour towards waste tube: some houses remove them; others prefer to not use waste tubes due to the unsanitary conditions. Before implanting such program additional research is needed.


Sterner, T. & Bartelings, H. (1998). Household Waste Management in a Swedish Municipality: Determinants of Waste Disposal, Recycling and Composting. Environmental and Resource Economics, pp.
473 491. [Online]. Available from:
Date accessed: 11 July 2019

TrashTrack (n.d ). [Online]. Available from:
Date accessed: 11 July 2019

address: 20 Myasnitskaya ulitsa
(metro stations ‘Lubyanka’ and ‘Kitay-Gorod’)
Moscow 101000 Russia

phone: +7(495)772-95-90 *15026